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Meals & nutrition

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Stepan Artemyev
Stepan Artemyev

Wild Mature



Sucrose transporter StSUT4 seems to be involved in sugar-dependent signaling processes and StSUT4-inhibited potato plants revealed a pleiotropic phenotype regarding carbon translocation and accumulation. Potato plants with down-regulated StSUT4-expression are early flowering and develop tubers even under non-inductive long day (LD) conditions [1]. They show reduced internode elongation and produced reduced amounts of ethylene [3]. StSUT4-RNAi plants are far-red insensitive and do not show shade avoidance response if shaded by neighboring plants or if grown under far red enrichment. Sucrose efflux from mature leaves is significantly increased at the end of the light period and increased export of photo-assimilates from leaves is accompanied by increased amount of soluble sugars or starch in sinks such as developing tubers [1,3]. Increased sucrose export is not necessarily correlated with a reduced amount of sugars in the leaves. Since the shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) is under control of phytochrome B (phyB) [4], the sucrose transporter StSUT4 is expected to be one of the phyB downstream signaling targets of this photoreceptor, and the expression of all three sucrose transporter genes of potato plants seem to be under control of the circadian clock [1].




wild mature



(A) Level of miR172 in source leaves of 35S::miR172 overexpressing potato plants (cyan bars) and StSUT4-RNAi plants (red bars) compared to Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena wild type plants (blue bar). 35S::miR172 overexpressing potato plants were previously shown to express increased amounts of miR172 [10] and were used as positive control. (B) Quantification of miR172 in source leaves of StSUT4-RNAi plants (red bars) and CaMV35S::StSUT4-GFP overexpressing plants (green bars). (C) Quantification of miR172 in sink leaves of StSUT4-RNAi plants (red bars) and CaMV35S::StSUT4-GFP overexpressing plants (green bars). Relative quantification was performed using 5SrRNA as a reference. StSUT4-RNAi plants were already described previously [1]. One way ANOVA was performed with (α = 0.05). Significant differences are indicated by different letters.


Detailed analysis of miR172 levels during the light period in potato wild type and StSUT4-silenced plants indicated a diurnal oscillation of this miRNA during the light period (Figure S3) when soluble sugar levels are increasing as well [1].


Quantification of miR172 in mature leaves depending on sugar supply in a short time experiment. Short time petiole experiment in the presence or absence of sugars was conducted with source leaves of 6 weeks old potato wild type plants (Solanum tuberosum variety Désirée). Sugars such as sucrose or sorbitol were supplied at a concentration of 100 mM each in 2.5 mM EDTA. Note that miR172 levels in the absence of sugars might oscillate diurnally during the day. Quantification was performed using 5SrRNA as a reference (α = 0.05). Significant differences are indicated by different letters and SE is given.


Growth and root morphology of potato wild type plants grown in vitro for 21 days on different carbon sources. Shoot and root length of six individual wild type potato plantlets were measured (A), as well as the total plant size (B) depending on the carbon source. Optimal growth and highest biomass production was observed when plantlets were grown on Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium supplied with 80 mM of sucrose. The standard error of the mean is given in (A) with n = 6 individual wild type plants. (C) Quantification of miR172 in a long time experiments by qPCR using whole plantlets, which photos are shown in (A) after 21 days of growth under sterile conditions. Whereas the effect of glucose and sorbitol on the transcript amount of miR172 is statistically not significant, the accumulation of miR172 transcripts is significantly higher when sucrose has been added in a concentration of 80 mM. Quantification of miRNAs was performed with Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum plants using 5SrRNA as a reference (with p


Wild olive (O. europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) is considered as the main progenitor of cultivated olive since both have the same ploidy level (2n = 2x = 46) and similar morphological traits and environmental requirements (Besnard and Rubio de Casas, 2016). Wild genotypes could be useful germplasm sources in olive breeding for introducing resistance to biotic (Colella et al., 2008) or abiotic stress (Murillo et al., 2005). Additionally, in recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the use of pathogen-resistant selections of wild olive as rootstocks to reduce the negative impact of some diseases, especially Verticillium wilt (Jiménez-Fernández et al., 2016). This disease, caused by the soil-borne pathogen Verticillium dahliae Kleb., is considered as the main threat to olive production worldwide (Jiménez-Díaz et al., 2012). Most economically important cultivated genotypes are susceptible or extremely susceptible to this disease (López-Escudero et al., 2004). Some wild olive selections highly resistant to defoliating V. dahliae pathotype have been identified and used to develop a grafted commercial product, Vertirés, currently available to growers (Jiménez-Díaz, 2018; Jiménez-Díaz and Requena, 2018).


Although olive is generally difficult to manipulate in vitro, it has been possible to micropropagate selected olive cultivars through nodal segmentation of elongated shoots (Rugini, 1984; Roussos and Pontikis, 2002; Lambardi et al., 2013). In few cases, buds (Bahrami et al., 2010) or plants (Mencuccini and Rugini, 1993) have been obtained through adventitious organogenesis from petiole and leaf sections derived from in vitro grown shoots of adult origin. However, the most widely used method for adventitious regeneration in both cultivated and wild olive is somatic embryogenesis, although, in this case, most investigations have been carried out with juvenile material, i.e., either immature zygotic embryos (Rugini, 1988) or radicle and cotyledon segments from mature embryos (Orinos and Mitrakos, 1991; Mitrakos et al., 1992; Cerezo et al., 2011). Regarding adult material, Rugini and Caricato (1995) developed a double regeneration system, using petioles derived from shoots of adventitious origin as explants, to obtain somatic embryos and plants from the Italian cvs. Canino and Moraiolo. Other authors used leaf and petioles isolated from in vitro shoots of cultivars Dahbia (Mazri et al., 2013) and Picual (Toufik et al., 2014). In wild olive, self-rooted plants in greenhouse were an adequate source of explants; however, plant regeneration was not reported (Capelo et al., 2010).


Type of explant plays a key role in embryogenic induction. Leaf sections (Corredoira et al., 2015) and shoot apex (San-José et al., 2010; Corredoira et al., 2015) of adult origin have been used in other woody species. In cultivated and wild olive, leaf and petiole explants had been recommended (Rugini and Caricato, 1995; Capelo et al., 2010; Mazri et al., 2013; Toufik et al., 2014); however, in this research, following comparison of three explant types, leaf, petiole, and shoot apex, embryogenic calli were only obtained when shoot apices were used, confirming previous observations of Corredoira et al. (2015) in eucalyptus. These authors indicated that shoot apex and leaves from the first node would be the most effective explants for somatic embryogenesis induction due to their high proliferation capacity and low differentiation stage.


Wild Turkeys live in mature forests, particularly nut trees such as oak, hickory, or beech, interspersed with edges and fields. You may also see them along roads and in woodsy backyards. After being hunted out of large parts of their range, turkeys were reintroduced and are numerous once again.


Although logging has destroyed most of these forests, we're fortunate that some of our old-growth and mature forests are still relatively intact, and its important to keep them this way. Oregon Wild has inventoried the mature and old-growth forests in some of Oregon's oldest, most intact landscapes.


There is no exact definition for what constitutes a mature or old-growth forest. For the purpose of mapping the general location of these forests, mature forests are defined 80-120 years of age, and old-growth as 120 years and older. This generalized range provides an idea of where mature and old-growth forests exist in Oregon. Oregon Wild believes these maps to be the most accurate depiction of mature and old-growth trees for these areas, but its important to note that the data is not perfect.


The gut bacterial communities associated with wild and mass-reared mature and newly emerged adults of Z. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis showed variation that depends on species and age of the insects. Understanding the gut microbiota of wild and mass-reared Z. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis using high throughput technology will help to illustrate microbial diversity and this information could be used to develop efficient mass-rearing protocols for successful implementation of sterile insect technique (SIT).


Relative abundance (%) of bacterial phyla obtained from the gut of wild and mass-reared mature and newly emerged Zeugodacus cucurbitae and Bactrocera dorsalis adult samples. Z. cucurbitae: WFC: Wild female cucurbitae; WMC: Wild male cucurbitae; MFC: Mature female cucurbitae; MMC: Mature male cucurbitae; NFC: Newly emerged female cucurbitae; NMC: Newly emerged male cucurbitae. B. dorsalis: WFD: Wild female dorsalis; WMD: Wild male dorsalis; MFD: Mature female dorsalis; MMD: Mature male dorsalis; NFD: Newly emerged female dorsalis and NMD: Newly emerged male dorsalis


Heat maps showing relative abundance of dominant bacterial families identified from gut of wild and mass-reared mature and newly emerged Zeugodacus cucurbitae and Bactrocera dorsalis adult samples. The color code indicates relative abundance, ranging from green (low abundance) to yellow to orange (high abundance). Z. cucurbitae: WFC: Wild female cucurbitae; WMC: Wild male cucurbitae; MFC: Mature female cucurbitae; MMC: Mature male cucurbitae; NFC: Newly emerged female cucurbitae; NMC: Newly emerged male cucurbitae. B. dorsalis: WFD: Wild female dorsalis; WMD: Wild male dorsalis; MFD: Mature female dorsalis; MMD: Mature male dorsalis; NFD: Newly emerged female dorsalis and NMD: Newly emerged male dorsalis 041b061a72


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