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Stepan Artemyev
Stepan Artemyev

CAN for Embedded Systems: An Elektor E-Book on Theory and Practice



Controller Area Network Projects Elektor Pdf Download




If you are interested in learning more about the Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol and how to design and implement microcontroller-based projects using the CAN bus, then you might want to check out the e-book "Controller Area Network Projects" by Dogan Ibrahim, published by Elektor. In this article, we will give you an overview of what CAN is, what Elektor is, what are some examples of CAN projects from Elektor, and how to download the PDF files of these projects from Elektor's website.




Controller Area Network Projects Elektor Pdf Download



What is Controller Area Network (CAN)?




CAN is a communication protocol that was originally developed by Bosch GmbH in the mid-1980s for automotive applications, but has since been widely adopted in other fields, such as industrial automation, medical devices, aerospace, robotics, and more. CAN is a broadcast digital bus that allows multiple nodes (such as sensors, actuators, controllers, etc.) to communicate with each other over a single twisted-pair cable, without requiring a central master or host. CAN is characterized by its high speed (up to 1 Mbps), low cost, simple implementation, deterministic resolution of contention, and built-in features for error detection and retransmission.


Definition and history of CAN




CAN stands for Controller Area Network, which implies that it is a network of controllers that can exchange data over a common area. The term controller refers to any device that can perform some logic or control function, such as a microcontroller, a PLC (programmable logic controller), a DSP (digital signal processor), etc. The term area refers to the physical extent of the network, which can range from a few meters to several kilometers, depending on the transmission rate and the cable characteristics.


The development of CAN started in 1983 at Bosch GmbH, a German company that specializes in automotive components and systems. The motivation was to reduce the wiring complexity and cost in modern vehicles, which had dozens of electronic control units (ECUs) that needed to communicate with each other for various functions, such as engine management, anti-lock braking system (ABS), airbag system, etc. By using a single bus instead of multiple point-to-point connections, CAN could simplify the wiring harness, save weight and space, improve reliability and maintainability, and enable new features and diagnostics.


The first version of the CAN protocol was released in 1986 by Bosch. In 1991, Bosch published the second version (CAN 2.0), which introduced two different formats for message frames: standard format (11-bit identifier) and extended format (29-bit identifier). In 1993, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standardized CAN as ISO 11898 for high-speed applications (up to 500 kbps) and ISO 11519 for low-speed applications (up to 125 kbps). Since then, several other standards have been developed based on CAN, such as CANopen, DeviceNet, J1939, etc., to provide higher-level services and protocols for specific domains and applications.


Features and benefits of CAN




CAN is a multi-master protocol, which means that any node on the bus can initiate a message transmission without requiring permission or coordination from a central authority. This allows for a flexible and decentralized network architecture, where nodes can join or leave the network at any time, and where new nodes can be added without modifying the existing ones.


CAN is also a message-oriented protocol, which means that the communication is based on messages rather than addresses. Each message has a unique identifier that defines its priority, content, and destination. The identifier also serves as the arbitration field, which determines the outcome of the bus contention when two or more nodes attempt to transmit at the same time. The node with the lowest identifier (highest priority) wins the arbitration and continues its transmission, while the other nodes back off and wait for the next opportunity. This ensures that the most urgent messages are always delivered first, and that the bus utilization is maximized.


CAN is also a reliable protocol, which means that it has several mechanisms to ensure the integrity and consistency of the data transmission. These include:


  • Bit stuffing: a technique to ensure that the bit stream on the bus does not contain long sequences of consecutive identical bits, which could cause synchronization problems or interfere with the detection of the start and end of a message.



  • Cyclic redundancy check (CRC): a technique to calculate a checksum for each message, which is appended at the end of the message and verified by the receiver. If the checksum does not match, it means that an error has occurred during the transmission, and the message is discarded.



  • Acknowledgement: a technique to confirm the successful reception of a message by all nodes on the bus. At the end of each message, there is a bit field called ACK, where each receiver can signal its acknowledgement by sending a dominant bit (0). If any receiver detects an error or does not receive the message, it can signal a negative acknowledgement by sending a recessive bit (1). The transmitter can then detect this and retransmit the message.



  • Error detection and signaling: a technique to monitor the bus state and detect any errors or faults that may occur on the bus or on the nodes. Each node has an error counter that keeps track of the number and type of errors it encounters. If the error counter exceeds a certain threshold, the node enters an error passive state, where it can still participate in the communication but with reduced functionality. If the error counter reaches another higher threshold, the node enters a bus off state, where it disconnects from the bus and stops communicating. Each node can also signal an error by sending an error frame, which consists of six consecutive dominant bits followed by eight recessive bits. This causes all other nodes to discard their current transmission and retransmit later.



These features and benefits make CAN an attractive solution for embedded control systems that require high performance, low cost, simple implementation, deterministic behavior, and reliable communication.


Applications and domains of CAN




CAN was originally designed for automotive applications, where it is still widely used today. CAN can be found in almost every modern vehicle, connecting various ECUs that perform functions such as engine management, ABS, airbag system, cruise control, climate control, entertainment system, etc. CAN can also support diagnostic services that allow technicians to access information and parameters from different ECUs using a standard interface called OBD (on-board diagnostics).


Besides automotive applications, CAN has also been adopted in other domains that require similar characteristics and capabilities. Some examples are:


  • Industrial automation: CAN can be used to connect sensors, actuators, controllers, and human-machine interfaces (HMIs) in various industrial processes and machines, such as manufacturing lines, robots, conveyor belts, etc.



  • Medical devices: CAN can be used to connect medical equipment and devices that monitor or control various physiological parameters or functions, such as blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen level, infusion pumps, ventilators, etc.



  • Aerospace: CAN can be used to connect avionics systems and devices that perform functions such as flight control, navigation, communication, instrumentation, etc.



  • Robotics: CAN can be used to connect robotic systems and devices that perform functions such as locomotion, manipulation, perception, cognition, etc.



  • And more: CAN can be used in any application that requires a robust and efficient communication network among multiple devices that perform some logic or control function.



What is Elektor?




Elektor is a company that provides products and services for electronics enthusiasts and professionals. Elektor publishes magazines, books, e-books, and web content on various topics related to electronics, such as microcontrollers, sensors, actuators, communication protocols, etc. Elektor also sells kits, modules, What is Elektor?




Elektor is a company that provides products and services for electronics enthusiasts and professionals. Elektor publishes magazines, books, e-books, and web content on various topics related to electronics, such as microcontrollers, sensors, actuators, communication protocols, etc. Elektor also sells kits, modules, tools, and components for building and experimenting with electronic circuits and projects. Elektor also organizes events, workshops, courses, and contests for the electronics community.


Definition and history of Elektor




Elektor is a word derived from the Latin word "elector", which means "chooser" or "selector". This reflects the philosophy of Elektor, which is to offer a wide range of choices and options for electronics enthusiasts and professionals to learn, create, and innovate with electronics.


The history of Elektor dates back to 1960, when a Dutch company called Elektuur was founded by Bob W. W. Wijnen and Jan van der Horst. Elektuur started as a publisher of hobbyist magazines and books on electronics. In 1970, Elektuur launched its first international edition in Germany, followed by other editions in France, UK, Spain, Italy, etc. In 1975, Elektuur changed its name to Elektor in the international market, while keeping the original name in the Netherlands. In 2009, Elektor acquired Circuit Cellar, an American magazine on embedded systems. In 2014, Elektor merged with EIM (European Institute for Microelectronics), a German company that provides training and consulting services on microelectronics. Today, Elektor is a global company that reaches millions of readers and customers in over 50 countries.


Products and services of Elektor




Elektor offers a variety of products and services for electronics enthusiasts and professionals. Some of them are:


  • Magazines: Elektor publishes monthly magazines in print and digital formats that cover various topics on electronics, such as projects, reviews, tutorials, news, trends, etc. The magazines are available in several languages, such as English, German, French, Spanish, Dutch, etc.



  • Books and e-books: Elektor publishes books and e-books on various topics on electronics, such as microcontrollers, sensors, actuators, communication protocols, etc. The books and e-books are available in several languages, such as English, German, French, Spanish, Dutch, etc.



  • Kits and modules: Elektor sells kits and modules that allow users to build and experiment with electronic circuits and projects. The kits and modules are based on various technologies, such as Arduino, Raspberry Pi, ESP32, STM32, etc. The kits and modules come with instructions, code, and support from Elektor.



  • Tools and components: Elektor sells tools and components that are useful for working with electronics, such as soldering stations, multimeters, oscilloscopes, logic analyzers, breadboards, wires, resistors, capacitors, transistors, LEDs, etc.



  • Web content: Elektor provides web content on various topics on electronics, such as articles, videos, podcasts, blogs, forums, etc. The web content is accessible through Elektor's website or mobile app.



  • Events: Elektor organizes events for the electronics community, such as workshops, courses, contests, exhibitions, conferences, etc. The events are held in various locations around the world or online.



Elektor's involvement in CAN projects




Elektor has been involved in several projects related to CAN over the years. Some of them are:


  • CAN bus analyzer: A project that shows how to build a CAN bus analyzer using an Arduino board and a CAN shield. The CAN bus analyzer can monitor and decode CAN messages on a CAN network.



Elektor's involvement in CAN projects




Elektor has been involved in several projects related to CAN over the years. Some of them are:


  • CAN bus analyzer: A project that shows how to build a CAN bus analyzer using an Arduino board and a CAN shield. The CAN bus analyzer can monitor and decode CAN messages on a CAN network.



  • CAN bus display: A project that shows how to build a CAN bus display using an Arduino board and a LCD shield. The CAN bus display can show various parameters from a CAN network, such as speed, RPM, temperature, etc.



  • CAN bus node: A project that shows how to build a CAN bus node using an Arduino board and a CAN shield. The CAN bus node can send and receive CAN messages on a CAN network.



These projects are explained in detail in the e-book "Controller Area Network Projects" by Dogan Ibrahim, published by Elektor. The e-book also covers the theory and principles of CAN, the operation and programming of microcontrollers, the design and implementation of CAN networks, and the use of OBD systems for vehicle diagnostics.


How to download the PDF files of CAN projects from Elektor?




If you want to download the PDF files of the CAN projects from Elektor, you need to follow these steps:


Requirements and steps for downloading




  • You need to have an account on Elektor's website. If you don't have one, you can create one for free by clicking on the "Register" button on the top right corner of the homepage.



  • You need to purchase the e-book "Controller Area Network Projects" by Dogan Ibrahim from Elektor's online store. The e-book costs 24.95 for non-members and 22.46 for members. You can pay by credit card, PayPal, or bank transfer.



  • After you purchase the e-book, you will receive an email confirmation with a link to download the PDF file of the e-book. You can also access the PDF file from your account page on Elektor's website.



  • The PDF file of the e-book contains 259 pages and 104.67 MB of data. It includes the text, images, diagrams, code, and links for all the chapters and projects in the e-book.



Contents and format of the PDF files




The PDF files of the CAN projects from Elektor contain the following contents and format:


  • The first page of each PDF file is the cover page, which shows the title, author, publisher, and ISBN of the e-book.



  • The second page of each PDF file is the table of contents, which shows the titles and page numbers of all the chapters and sections in the e-book.



  • The third page of each PDF file is the introduction page, which gives an overview of the e-book and its objectives.



  • The rest of the pages of each PDF file are the chapters and sections of the e-book, which explain the theory and practice of CAN and its applications in various projects.



  • The last page of each PDF file is the index page, which lists all the keywords and topics in alphabetical order with their corresponding page numbers in the e-book.



  • The PDF files are formatted in A4 size (210 x 297 mm) with portrait orientation. They have a margin of 25 mm on all sides. They use a font size of 12 pt for normal text and 14 pt for headings. They use a font type of Arial for normal text and Arial Black for headings. They use black color for text and blue color for links.



Tips and suggestions for using the PDF files




Here are some tips and suggestions for using the PDF files of the CAN projects from Elektor:


  • You can view the PDF files on any device that supports PDF viewing, such as a computer, a tablet, a smartphone, etc. You can also print the PDF files on paper if you prefer.



  • You can zoom in or out the PDF files to adjust the size and readability of the text and images. You can also rotate the PDF files to change the orientation of the pages.



  • You can search the PDF files for any word or phrase that you are looking for by using the search function of the PDF viewer. You can also use the table of contents and the index to navigate the PDF files and find the topics that interest you.



  • You can bookmark the PDF files to mark the pages that you want to revisit later by using the bookmark function of the PDF viewer. You can also add notes or comments to the PDF files to annotate the text or images that you want to remember or highlight by using the annotation function of the PDF viewer.



  • You can follow the links in the PDF files to access the external resources that are referenced in the e-book, such as websites, videos, podcasts, blogs, forums, etc. You can also download or copy the code in the PDF files to use or modify it for your own projects.



Conclusion




In this article, we have given you an overview of what CAN is, what Elektor is, what are some examples of CAN projects from Elektor, and how to download the PDF files of these projects from Elektor's website. We hope that this article has been informative and useful for you, and that it has inspired you to learn more about CAN and its applications in various domains and projects. If you want to get the e-book "Controller Area Network Projects" by Dogan Ibrahim, published by Elektor, you can visit Elektor's online store and purchase it for 24.95 for non-members and 22.46 for members. You will then receive an email confirmation with a link to download the PDF file of the e-book, which contains 259 pages and 104.67 MB of data. You can also access the PDF file from your account page on Elektor's website. You can then view, print, zoom, rotate, search, bookmark, annotate, follow, download, or copy the PDF file as you wish. We hope that you enjoy reading and using the e-book and the PDF files, and that you have fun and success with your CAN projects.


FAQs




Here are some frequently asked questions (FAQs) about CAN projects from Elektor:


  • Q: What are the prerequisites for reading and using the e-book and the PDF files?A: The e-book and the PDF files assume that you have some basic knowledge of electronics and C programming. You also need to have some hardware components, such as an Arduino board, a CAN shield, a LCD shield, a CAN bus cable, etc., to build and test the projects.



  • Q: How can I contact Elektor if I have any questions or issues with the e-book or the PDF files?A: You can contact Elektor by email at service@elektor.com or by phone at +31 46 43 89 444. You can also visit Elektor's website at https://www.elektor.com/ and use the contact form or the live chat function.



  • Q: How can I get more information or support on CAN or other topics related to electronics?A: You can visit Elektor's website at https://www.elektor.com/ and browse through their magazines, books, e-books, web content, kits, modules, tools, components, events, etc. You can also join Elektor's community and interact with other electronics enthusiasts and professionals on their forums, blogs, podcasts, videos, etc.



  • Q: How can I give feedback or suggestions on the e-book or the PDF files?A: You can give feedback or suggestions on the e-book or the PDF files by leaving a review on Elektor's online store or by sending an email to service@elektor.com. You can also share your experience or opinion on Elektor's forums, blogs, podcasts, videos, etc.



  • Q: How can I share my own CAN projects or ideas with Elektor or other users?A: You can share your own CAN projects or ideas with Elektor or other users by submitting them to Elektor's website at https://www.elektormagazine.com/labs. You can also share them on Elektor's forums, blogs, podcasts, videos, etc.



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